ANCAMAN TERORISME ISLAMIC STATE OF IRAQ AND SYRIA (ISIS) PASCA FASE “KHILAFAH”

Prihandono Wibowo dan Renitha Dwi Hapsari

Abstract


Tulisan ini bertujuan mengelaborasi eksistensi dan strategi terorisme ISIS pasca perang Baghouz. Sejak Perang Baghouz pada Maret 2019, beberapa pemimpin negara mengumumkan kemenangan atas ISIS sekaligus mengumumkan berakhirnya “khilafah” ISIS yang pernah dideklarasikan tahun 2014. Namun  pasca fase tersebut, ISIS mengklaim kelompoknya masih eksis dan mampu melakukan operasi serangan lintas negara. ISIS justru menggencarkan operasi gerilya maupun terorisme di berbagai negara lintas benua. Hal ini menggambarkan bahwa potensi ancaman terorisme kelompok tersebut masih menjadi persoalan serius bagi keamanan dunia internasional. Oleh karena itu, eksistensi ISIS pasca fase “khilafah” dan trend potensi ancaman terorisme kelompok tersebut signifikan untuk dikaji, baik dalam dunia akademis maupun bagi pengambil kebijakan dalam bidang keamanan. Terdapat temuan menarik dalam tulisan ini. Pertama, ISIS masih eksis dan mendapat dukungan dari “mujahidin” lintas negara. ISIS bertransformasi dari “quasi-state” menjadi kelompok “teroris.” Kedua, penggunaan strategi franchise dan lone wolf terrorism oleh ISIS menonjol pasca kelompok tersebut kehilangan penguasaan teritori. Ketiga, ISIS masih dominan menggunakan media sosial dan internet untuk kepentingan konstruksi propaganda dan komunikasi. Hasil tersebut didasarkan atas triangulasi data, yaitu data yang berasal dari dokumen yang disirkulasikan oleh ISIS dan afiliasinya pasca Perang Baghouz,  hasil wawancara, serta konfirmasi dengan data independen.

Kata-kata Kunci : “khilafah” ISIS, kombinasi strategi, ancaman terorisme


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References


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