NEGARA, PASAR, DAN KEAMANAN ENERGI

Nikolaus Loy

Abstract


Keamanan energi telah menjadi salah satu isu kritis dalam poliitk internasional sejak tahun 1970-an. Saat ini penguatan isu ini didorong oleh kombinasi antara peningkatan konsumsi energi, dampak lingkungan, penurunan produksi migas dan posisi penting energi dalam sector militer dan politik. Menjawab pertanyaan tentang bagaimana cara menjamin keamanan energi, perspektif geo-politik dan pasar mengajukan jawaban dan preskripsi yang berbeda. Dengan menggunakan studi literatur, artikel ini mendiskusikan argumen-argumen mendasar kedua perspektif tentang keamanan energi. Artikel ini menyimpulkan bahwa perbedaan dalam preskripsi berasal dari pandangan geo-politik dan pasar tentang posisi energi. Pendukung geo-politik menempatkan energi sebagai komoditas strategis yang merupakan elemen mendasar dalam keamanan nasional dan kekuatan militer. Pendukung pasar, sebaliknya, berargumen bahwa energi adalah komoditas yang dapat diperdagangkan secara bebas oleh individu dan perusahaan. Meskipun demikian, keamanan energi dapat dijamin melalui kombinasi antara pendekatan geo-politik dan mekanisme pasar. Negara dibutuhkan untuk menjamin keamanan investasi energi, keamanan sumber energi, jaringan infrastruktur produksi dan distribusi energi. Pada saat yang sama, perusahaan swasta mampu memberikan sumbangan penting dalam pengembangan teknologi dan energi terbarukan. 

Kata kunci: Keamanan Energi, Geo-politik dan Pasar.


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