FROM THE BALLOTS TO THE BEACHES: ASSESSING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEMOCRACY AND TOURISM

Hestutomo Restu Kuncoro

Abstract


Meskipun hubungan antara demokrasi dan stabilitas, serta antara stabilitas dan pariwisata, telah terjalin dengan baik, makalah-makalah ilmiah yang dengan kuat memeriksa hubungan antara demokrasi dan pariwisata sangat langka. Artikel ini berupaya mengatasi masalah ini dengan memeriksa korelasi antara tingkat demokrasi dan tingkat pengembangan pariwisata. Untuk itu, artikel ini mencoba menggunakan regresi berganda untuk melihat korelasi antara keduanya, dan interpretasi hasil dilakukan secara kualitatif menggunakan perbandingan studi kasus. Demokrasi sebagai variabel independen diwakili oleh Indeks Demokrasi Unit Intelijen Economist, sedangkan pengembangan pariwisata sebagai dependen diwakili oleh Travel and Tourism (T&T) Competitiveness Index, Forum Ekonomi Dunia (World Economic Forum). Dua regresi terpisah dijalankan. Yang pertama adalah regresi berganda dengan T&T Index sebagai variabel dependen dan Indeks Demokrasi sebagai variabel independen. Yang kedua adalah regresi multivariat dengan Indeks Demokrasi sebagai variabel independen, dan Indeks T&T dipecah menjadi empat belas komponen untuk melayani sebagai variabel dependen; regresi ini digunakan untuk menguji sifat sebenarnya dari hubungan tersebut. Regresi pertama menunjukkan korelasi kecil (r = 0,18) tetapi signifikan secara statistik (p <0,001) antara Indeks Demokrasi dan Indeks T&T. Regresi kedua menunjukkan bahwa Indeks Demokrasi memiliki korelasi yang signifikan secara statistik (semua p <0,001) dengan semua komponen Indeks T&T, dan sebagian besar korelasi positif kecuali untuk daya saing harga (r = - 0,237). Efek dari Indeks Demokrasi kecil pada sebagian besar variabel dependen kecuali untuk Keterbukaan Internasional (r = 0,401), Kesiapan ICT (r = 0,328), Sumber Daya Manusia dan Pasar Tenaga Kerja (0,315), dan Layanan Pariwisata dan Infrastruktur (0,395). Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa ada hubungan positif yang kuat antara demokrasi dan pariwisata karena rezim demokratis cenderung memiliki karakteristik yang bermanfaat bagi pengembangan pariwisata. Hasilnya menuntut penelitian lebih lanjut yang lebih rumit untuk mengungkapkan sifat sebenarnya dari hubungan mereka.

Kata Kunci: Demokrasi, Pariwisata, Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index.


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